Radeon R600


Unified shaders

The "R600" is the first personal computer graphics processing unit (GPU) from ATI based on a unified shader architecture. It is ATI's second generation unified shader design and is based on the "Xenos" GPU implemented in the Xbox 360 game console, which used the world's first such shader architecture. Previous GPU architectures implement separate processors for each type of graphics function. A unified architecture leverages many flexible processors which can be scheduled to process a variety of shader types, thereby significantly increasing GPU throughput (dependent on application instruction mix as noted below). The R600 core processes vertex, geometry, and pixel shaders as outlined by the Direct3D 10.0 specification for Shader Model 4.0 in addition to full OpenGL 3.0 support.

The new unified shader functionality is based upon a Very long instruction word (VLIW) architecture in which the core executes operations in parallel.

A shader cluster is organized into 5 stream processing units. Each stream processing unit (except the 5th) can retire a finished single precision floating point MAD (or ADD or MUL) instruction per clock, dot product (dp, and special cased by combining ALUs), and integer ADD. The 5th unit is more complex and can additionally handle special transcendental functions such as sine and cosine. Each shader cluster can execute 6 instructions per clock cycle (peak), consisting of 5 shading instructions plus 1 branch .

Notably, the VLIW architecture brings with it some classic challenges inherent to VLIW designs, namely that of maintaining optimal instruction flow.

Additionally, the chip cannot co-issue instructions when one is dependent on the results of the other. Performance of the GPU is highly dependent on the mixture of instructions being used by the application and how well the real-time compiler in the driver can organize said instructions.

R600 core includes 64 shader clusters, while RV610 and RV630 cores have 8 and 24 shader clusters respectively.

See also: Very long instruction word

Hardware tessellation

The GPU is equipped with an extra feature which is not part of the current DirectX 10.0 specification. It contains programmable tessellation units, similar to those within the Xenos GPU (codenamed "C1") also developed by ATI. This unit allows a developer to take a simple polygon mesh and subdivide it based on a curved surface evaluation function, with different tessellation forms as Bzier surfaces with N-patches, B-splines and NURBS, and even some subdivision surface techniques, which usually comes with a displacement map texture. Essentially, this allows a simple, low-polygon model to be increased dramatically in polygon density in real-time with minimized performance loss. Scott Wasson of Tech Report noted during an AMD demo of the technology that the resulting model was so dense with millions of polygons that it appeared to be solid.

This unit is reminiscent of ATI's earlier "TruForm" technology, used initially in the Radeon 8500, which performed a similar function in hardware. While this tessellation hardware is not part of the current OpenGL or Direct3D requirements, and competitors such as the GeForce 8 series lack similar hardware, Microsoft has included Tessellation as part of their D3D10.1 future plans. The "TruForm" technology from the past received little attention from software developers and was only utilized in a few game titles (such as Madden NFL 2004, Serious Sam, Unreal Tournament 2003 and 2004, and unofficially Morrowind), because it was not a feature shared with NVIDIA GPUs which had a competing Tessellation solution using Quintic-RT patches which met with even less support from developers. Since the Xenos contains similar hardware, and Microsoft sees hardware surface tessellation as a major GPU feature with proposed implementation of hardware tessellation support in future DirectX releases (presumably DirectX 11), dedicated hardware tessellation units may receive increased developer awareness in future titles. It remains to be seen whether ATI's implementation will be compatible with the eventual DirectX standard.

Ultra threaded dispatch processor

Although the R600 is a significant departure from previous designs, it still shares many features with its predecessors. The "Ultra-Threaded Dispatch Processor" is a major architectural component of the R600 core, just as it was with the Radeon X1000 GPUs. This processor manages a large number of in-flight threads of three distinct types (vertex, geometry, and pixel shaders) and switches amongst them as needed. With a large number of threads being managed simultaneously it is possible to reorganize thread order to optimally utilize the shaders. In other words, the dispatch processor evaluates what goes in the other parts of the R600 and attempts to keep processing efficiency as high as possible. There are lower levels of "management" as well; each SIMD array of 80 stream processors has its own sequencer and arbiter. The arbiter decides which thread to process next, while the sequencer attempts to reorder instructions for best possible performance within each thread.

Texturing and anti-aliasing

Texturing and final output aboard the R600 core is similar but also distinct from R580. R600 is equipped with 4 texture units that are decoupled (independent) from the shader core, like in the R520 and R580 GPUs.

The render output units (ROPs) of Radeon HD 2000 series now performs the task of multi-sample anti-aliasing (MSAA) with programmable sample grids and maximum of 8 sample points, instead of using pixel shaders as in Radeon X1000 series. Also new is the capability to filter FP16 textures, popular with HDR lighting, at full-speed. ROP can also perform trilinear and anisotropic filtering on all texture formats. On R600, this totals 16 pixels per clock for FP16 textures, while higher precision FP32 textures filter at half-speed (8 pixels per clock).

Anti-aliasing capabilities are more robust on R600 than on the R520 series. In addition to the ability to perform 8x MSAA, up from 6x MSAA on the R300 through R580, R600 has a new "custom filter anti-aliasing" (CFAA) mode. CFAA refers to an implementation of non-box filters that look at pixels around the particular pixel being processed in order to calculate the final color and anti-alias the image. CFAA is performed by shader, instead of in the ROPs. This brings greatly enhanced programmability because the filters can be customized, but may also bring potential performance issues because of the use of shader resources. As of launch of R600, CFAA utilizes wide and narrow tent filters. With these, samples from outside the pixel being processed are weighted linearly based upon their distance from the centroid of that pixel, with the linear function adjusted based on the wide or narrow filter chosen.

Memory controllers

Memory controllers are connected via internal bi-directional ring bus wrapped around the processor. In Radeon HD 2900, it is a 1024-bit bi-directional ring bus (512-bit read and 512-bit write), with 8 64-bit memory channels for a total bus width of 512-bits on the 2900 XT.; in Radeon HD 3800, it is a 512-bit ring bus; in Radeon HD 2600 and HD 3600, it is a 256-bit ring bus; In Radeon HD 2400 and HD 3400, there is no ring bus.

Video processing, display and miscellaneous features

All video cards except the Radeon HD 2900 series include dedicated ATI's Unified Video Decoder for hardware decoding of MPEG4, VC-1, H.264 video streams, which itself being the major part of AVIVO HD technology. In terms of functionality, NVIDIA's Purevideo 2 offer similar hardware video acceleration, with UVD including greater VC-1 offloading.

HDTV encoding support is implemented via the integrated AMD Xilleon encoder; the companion "Rage Theater" chip used on the Radeon X1000 series was replaced with the digital "Theater 200" chip, providing VIVO capabilities.

For display outputs, all variants include two dual-link TMDS transmitters, except for HD 2400 and HD 3400, which include one single and one dual-link TMDS transmitters. Each DVI output includes dual-link HDCP encoder with on-chip decipher key. HDMI was introduced, supporting display resolutions up to 19201080, with integrated HD audio controller with 5.1-channel LPCM and AC3 encoding support. Audio is transmitted via DVI port, with specially designed DVI-to-HDMI dongle for HDMI output that carries both audio and video.

All variants support CrossFireX technology. CrossFire efficiency was improved and shows performance approaching the theoretical maximum of twice the performance of a single card.

While some of the architecture of Radeon HD 2000 family is similar to Xenos, Radeon HD 2000 family does not have embedded DRAM (eDRAM) frame buffer. Xenos' eDRAM is designed tightly around the limited resolutions at which the Xbox 360 operates. Personal computers operate at maximum efficiency at a much wider range of resolutions, which would require a significantly larger amount of eDRAM to be effective.

Half-generation update

Please help improve this section by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page. (May 2009)

The series saw a half-generation update with die shrink (55 nm) variants: RV670, RV635 and RV620. All variants support PCI Express 2.0, DirectX 10.1 with Shader Model 4.1 features, dedicated ATI Unified Video Decoder (UVD) for all models and PowerPlay technology for desktop video cards.

Except the Radeon HD 3800 series, all variants supported 2 integrated DisplayPort outputs, supporting 24- and 30-bit displays for resolutions up to 25601600. Each output included 1, 2, or 4 lanes per output, with data rate up to 2.7 Gbps per lane.

ATI claimed that the support of DirectX 10.1 can bring improved performance and processing efficiency with reduced rounding error (0.5 ULP compared with average error 1.0 ULP as tolerable error), better image details and quality, global illumination (a technique used in animated films, and more improvements to consumer gaming systems therefore giving more realistic gaming experience. )

Desktop products

The R600 family is called the Radeon HD 2000 series, with the enthusiast segment being the "Radeon HD 2900 series" which originally comprised the Radeon HD 2900 XT with GDDR3 memory released on May 14, and the higher-clocked GDDR4 version in early July.

The mainstream and budget segment products were the Radeon HD 2600 and Radeon HD 2400 series respectively, both launched June 28, 2007.

Previously there were no HD 2000 series products being offered in the performance segment while ATI used models from the previous generation to address that target market; the situation was not changed until the release of variants of the Radeon HD 2900 series, the Radeon HD 2900 Pro and GT, which filled the gap of the performance market for a short period of time.

Radeon HD 2900

The Radeon HD 2900 series was based on the codenamed R600 GPU, packed 700 million transistors on an 80 nm fabrication process and had a 420mm die size. The Radeon HD 2900 XT was the first graphics card product to implement digital PWM onboard, specifically 7-phase PWM. The first product of the line, the Radeon HD 2900 XT, was launched on May 14, 2007.

The Radeon HD 2900 Pro was clocked lower at 600 MHz core and 800 MHz memory (1600 MHz effective), configured with 512 MiB or 1 GiB (GDDR3/GDDR4) of video memory and the same 512-bit memory controller as the Radeon HD 2900 XT instead of the previously rumored 256-bit memory controller.

The Radeon HD 2900 GT was a 48-shader cluster variant clocked the same as the HD 2900 Pro with 256 MB of video memory on a 256-bit interface.

Radeon HD 2600

The Radeon HD 2600 series was based on the codenamed RV630 GPU and packed 390 million transistors on a 65 nm fabrication process. The Radeon HD 2600-series video cards included GDDR3 support, a 128-bit memory ring bus and 4-phase digital PWM, spanning a die size of 153 mm. Neither of the GDDR3 reference PCI-E designs required additional power connectors whereas the HD 2600 Pro and XT AGP variants required additional power through either 4-pin or 6-pin power connectors. Official claims state that the Radeon HD 2600 series consumes as little as 45 W of power.[citation needed]

Radeon HD 2600 X2

The Radeon HD 2600 X2 is a dual-GPU product which includes 2 RV630 cores onto a single PCB with a PCI-E bridge splitting the PCI-E x16 bandwidth into two groups of PCI-E x8 lanes (each 2.0 Gb/s). The card provides 4 DVI outputs or HDMI outputs via dongle and supports CrossFire configurations. AMD calls this product the "Radeon HD 2600 X2" as seen by some vendors and as observed inside the INF file of Catalyst 7.9 version 8.411. Sapphire and other vendors including PowerColor and GeCube have either announced or demonstrated their respective "CrossFire on a card" products. Catalyst 7.9 added support for this hardware in September 2007. However, AMD did not provide much publicity to promote it. A vendor may offer cards containing 256 MB, 512 MB, or 1 GB of video memory. Although the memory technology utilized is at a vendor's discretion, most vendors have opted for GDDR3 and DDR2 due to lower manufacturing cost and positioning of this product for the mainstream rather than performance market segment.

Radeon HD 2400

The Radeon HD 2400 series was based on the codenamed RV610 GPU. It had 180 million transistors on a 65 nm fabrication process. The Radeon HD 2400 series used a 64-bit-wide memory bus. The die size is 85 mm. The official PCB design implements only a passive-cooling heatsink instead of a fan, and official claims of power consumption are as little as 35 W.[citation needed] The core has 16 KB unified vertex/texture cache away from dedicated vertex cache and L1/L2 texture cache used in higher end model.

Reports has that the first batch of the RV610 core (silicon revision A12), only being released to system builders, has a bug that hindered the UVD from working properly, but other parts of the die operated normally. Those products were officially supported with the release of Catalyst 7.10 driver, which the cards were named as Radeon HD 2350 series.

Radeon HD 3800

The Radeon HD 3800 series was based on the codenamed RV670 GPU, packed 666 million transistors on a 55 nm fabrication process and had a die size at 192 mm, with the same 64 shader clusters as the R600 core, but the memory bus width was reduced to 256 bits.

The RV670 GPU is also the base of the FireStream 9170 stream processor, which uses the GPU to perform general purpose floating-point calculations which were done in the CPU previously.

The Radeon HD 3850 and 3870 became available mid-November 2007.

Radeon HD 3690/3830

The Radeon HD 3690, which was limited only to the Chinese market where it was named HD 3830, has the same core as the Radeon 3800 series but with only a 128-bit memory controller and 256MB of GDDR3 memory. All other hardware specifications are retained.

A further announcement was made that there would be a Radeon HD 3830 variant bearing the same features as Radeon HD 3690, but with a unique device ID that does not allow add-in card partners in China to re-enable the burnt-out portion of the GPU core for more memory bandwidth.

The Radeon HD 3690 was released early February 2008 for the Chinese market only.

Radeon HD 3800 X2

Radeon HD 3870 X2

Radeon HD 3870 X2 (codenamed R680) was released on January 28, 2008, featuring 2 RV670 cores with a maximum of 1024 MB GDDR3 SDRAM, targeting the enthusiast market and replacing the Radeon HD 2900 XT. The processor achieved a peak single-precision floating point performance of just over 1 TFLOPS (1.06 TFLOPS), being the world's first single-PCB graphics product breaking the 1 TFLOP mark.

The Radeon HD 3870 X2 uses the same approach for communications between the two GPU cores as the Sapphire Radeon X1950 Pro Dual and Radeon HD 2600 X2. The GPU cores communicate to each other through an onboard PCI-E switch, providing each core with x8 (Radeon X1950 Pro Dual) to x16 (Radeon HD 2600 X2) PCI-E bandwidth and becoming a software CrossFire setup, supporting two extra hardware CrossFire bridges. The Radeon HD 3870 X2 uses PEX8547 PCI-E switch,, but each core shares x16 PCI-E bandwidth. The card only sees one CrossFire bridge being placed onboard and between the cores, thus only allowing one CrossFire bridge to be plugged onto the card.

AMD stated the possibility of supporting 4 Radeon HD 3870 X2 cards, allowing 8 GPUs to be used on several motherboards, including the MSI K9A2 Platinum and Intel D5400XS, because these motherboards have sufficient spaces between PCI-E slots for dual-slot cooler video cards, presumably as a combination of two separate hardware CrossFire setups with a software CrossFire setup bridging the two, but currently with no driver support.

Radeon HD 3600

The Radeon HD 3600 series was based on the codenamed RV635 GPU, packed 378 million transistors on 55 nm fabrication process, and had 128-bit memory bus width. The support for HDMI and D-Sub ports is also achieved through separate dongles. Beside the DisplayPort implementations, there also exists other display output layouts as dual DVI port or DVI with D-Sub display output layout.

The only variant, the Radeon HD 3650, was released on January 23, 2008.

Radeon HD 3400

AMD Radeon HD3450

The Radeon HD 3400 series was based on the codenamed RV620 GPU, packed 181 million transistors on a 55 nm fabrication process, and had 64-bit memory bus width. Products were available in full height ATX cards and low-profile cards.

One of the notable features is that the Radeon HD 3400 series (including Mobility Radeon HD 3400 series) video cards support ATI Hybrid Graphics.

The Radeon HD 3450 and Radeon HD 3470 were released on January 23, 2008.

Mobile products

All Mobility Radeon HD 2000/3000 series share the same feature set support as their desktop counterparts, as well as the addition of the battery-conserving PowerPlay 7.0 features, which are augmented from the previous generation's PowerPlay 6.0.

The Mobility Radeon HD 2300 is a budget product which includes UVD "in silica" but lacks unified shader architecture and DirectX 10.0 / SM 4.0 support, limiting support to DirectX 9.0c / SM 3.0 using the more traditional architecture of the previous generation. A high-end variant, the Mobility Radeon HD 2700, with higher core and memory frequencies than the Mobility Radeon HD 2600, was released in mid-December 2007.

The Mobility Radeon HD 2400 is offered in two model variants; the standard HD 2400 and the HD 2400 XT.

The Mobility Radeon HD 2600 is also available in the same two flavors; the plain HD 2600 and, at the top of the mobility lineup, the HD 2600 XT.

The half-generation update treatment had also applied to mobile products. Announced prior to CES 2008 was the Mobility Radeon HD 3000 series. Released in the first quarter of 2008, the Mobility Radeon HD 3000 series consisted of two families, the Mobility Radeon HD 3400 series and the Mobility Radeon HD 3600 series. The Mobility Radeon HD 3600 series also featured the industry's first implementation of on-board 128-bit GDDR4 memory.

About the time of late March to early April, 2008, AMD renewed the device ID list on its website with the inclusion of Mobility Radeon HD 3850 X2 and Mobility Radeon HD 3870 X2 and their respective device IDs. Later in Spring IDF 2008 held in Shanghai, a development board of the Mobility Radeon HD 3870 X2 was demonstrated alongside a Centrino 2 platform demonstration system. The Mobility Radeon HD 3870 X2 was based on two M88 GPUs with the addition of a PCI Express switch chip on a single PCB. The demonstrated development board is on PCI Express 2.0 x16 bus, while the final product is expected to be on AXIOM/MXM modules.

Driver support

Main article: ATI Catalyst Drivers


The Purple Pill tool issue, which could allow unsigned drivers to be loaded into Windows Vista and tamper with the operating system kernel, was resolved in the Catalyst 7.8 release (version 8.401). The AVIVO video converter for Windows Vista, and color temperature control in Catalyst Control Center was added with the release of Catalyst 7.9, package version 8.411. Software CrossFire was enabled for HD 2600 and HD 2400 series video cards with the release of Catalyst 7.10 (package version 8.421)

The Catalyst 8.1, package version 8.451, supports for MultiView technology for accelerated OpenGL rendering on multiple video card setup (CrossFire). The driver also allows CrossFire configurations for Radeon HD 3850 and HD 3870 video cards.

The Catalyst 8.3 is described by AMD as a milestone release, supporting DirectX 10.1, ATI CrossFire X technology and allowing the mixing of different Radeon HD 3800 series video cards to form a CrossFire X setup with 2 to 4 GPUs. Catalyst 8.3 introduced to new video controls to further enhance the video playback quality, these controls includes edge enhancement and noise reduction settings. There is also the support for extended desktop in CrossFire X mode. The anti-aliasing support for Unreal Engine 3.0 in DirectX 9.0 games, support for CFAA filters (wide tent and box tent) to be enabled when Super AA is enabled, and other features as developer support for Hardware surface tessellation, hardware accelerated wide aspect ratio LCD scaling, HydraVision support for Windows Vista allowing to add maximum 9 virtual desktops and new Folding@Home client (version 6.10) are also officially supported in this release.

The Catalyst 8.5, package version 8.493 brought new features include component video with 480i and 480p resolutions, SECAM TV output support, 1080p HDTV custom mode via HDMI, 1080p24 (1080p resolution at 24 frame/s) support, HDMI Audio for non-standard TV modes (CEA 861b), support for adaptive anti-aliasing under OpenGL, Windows XP SP3 support and un-install utility enhancements. The driver also includes performance improvements and fixes some instability issues and rendering issues on some games.

It should be note that current Catalyst drivers do not support the AGP versions of Radeon HD 2000/3000 series cards with RIALTO bridge. Installing Catalyst drivers on those cards will yield the following error message: "setup did not find a driver compatible with your current hardware or operating system." or simply fail outright. The AGP cards in question are supported unofficially by ATI/AMD with a "hotfixed" Catalyst driver-set each month since May 2008 with the Catalyst 8.5 hotfix . Their PCI vendor IDs are listed below:

GPU core


PCI device ID


Radeon HD 2400 Pro


RV620 (M82SE)

Radeon HD 3430



Radeon HD 3450



Radeon HD 2600 Pro



Radeon HD 2600 XT



Please help improve this section by expanding it. Further information might be found on the talk page. (June 2008)

The official closed-source ATI Linux driver was named fglrx, then renamed as Catalyst drivers for Linux, currently version 9.12. In the past there was no support for the AGP versions of the HD 2400 and HD 2600, but support was added in version 8.5 of fglrx.

Another Linux driver is the RadeonHD driver, an open-source ATI R500/600 display driver, it is developed in part by specifications that AMD has openly published. To date, AMD has released register specifications for M56, M76, RV630 and RS690 GPUs and 3D programming guide for the R500 family of GPUs. AMD has committed to releasing their R500 and R600 GPU documentation along with publishing their specifications for past generations of GPUs.

Documentation release

AMD committed to releasing register documentations for each generations of GPU to support the open source community and an open source driver RadeonHD for Linux. Initial register documentation and parser code to execute the AtomBIOS ROM routines were released in September 2007. The R600 family Instruction Set Architecture guide was released on June 11, 2008. Sample code and register headers for the R600 and R700 3D engines were released in December 2008. AMD released the specifications for both the r6xx and r7xx families on January 26, 2009.


New model numbering scheme

The numbering schemes for Radeon HD 3000 series as well as Mobility Radeon HD 3000 series were notably changed. While previous PRO, XT, GT, and XTX suffixes were eliminated, products were differentiated by changing the last two digits of the product model number (for instance, HD 3850 and HD 3870, giving the impression that the HD 3870 model having higher performance than HD 3850). While for dual-GPU products, a new suffix "X2" will be used to identify its nature as dual-GPU on one PCB solution. Similar changes to the IGP naming were spotted as well, for the previously launched AMD M690T chipset with side-port memory, the IGP is named "Radeon X1270", while for the AMD 690G chipset, the IGP is named "Radeon X1250", as for AMD 690V chipset, the IGP is clocked lower and having fewer functions and thus named "Radeon X1200". The new numbering scheme of video products are shown below:

Product Category

Model number

range (steps of 10)1

Price range


Shader amount








Size (MiB)


Dual GPU

800 X2-990 X23

>$ 250




2x 256-bit


2 DVI,

HDMI, DP (Dongle)

HD 3870 X2/HD 3850 X2




>$ 150






2 DVI,

HDMI, DP (Dongle)

HD 3870/3850



$ 100$ 150







D-Sub, DVI

HD 3650/3690

DVI, 2 DP,

HDMI (Dongle)








(HM: 768/1024)

D-Sub, DVI,

HDMI, DP (Dongle)

HD 3450/3470






side-port memory


UMA + 32-bit

(side-port) 4

64/1284 + UMA

(OS dependent)

D-Sub, DVI,


Component (YCbCr)


HD 3200/HD 3100/2100

1 The last two digits denotes variant, similar to the previous suffixes, which "70" is in essence the "XT" variant while "50" is actually the "Pro" variant , while "90" appeared once in the lineup and can be seen as the "XTX" variant.

2 Stream Processors only applicable to Direct3D 10-class video components (Radeon HD 2000/3000 series).

3 All Dual-GPU solutions will have an X2 suffix after the model number.

4 Side-port memory as local frame buffer is only available on selected IGP models, not all IGP models have this feature.

Product confusions

When Radeon HD 2900 was first released, there was much confusion as to whether or not the product included dedicated video processor hardware, due in part to statements that it supported the software program AVIVO HD. Many reviewers and subsequent readers/consumers interpreted this as meaning the HD2900 incorporated the same UVD hardware as found in the HD 2400 & HD 2600 series, despite some sites noting this difference at launch time, weeks before the issue first gained traction as a result of a TechReport article. This confusion and subsequent discussions prompted AMD to make a formal statement designed to clarify exactly what UVD was available in which models. The HD 2900 XT video playback capabilities are similar to those of the previous X1000 cards with AVIVO capabilities.

Starting August, 2007 some system builders including Falcon Northwest received the 1 GB GDDR4 (with Samsung 0.9 ns (K4U52324QE-BC09) GDDR4) version of the Radeon HD 2900 XT. Falcon Northwest incorrectly referred the product as the "Radeon HD 2900 XTX".

It should be noted that several products, branded the Mobility Radeon X2000 series, are in fact based on the older R520 architecture and spotting the support of DirectX 9.0c only and do not have UVD on die.

Chipset table

Main article: Comparison of ATI Graphics Processing Units

See also

Video card

Graphics processing unit

GeForce 8 series

FireStream 9170, the GPGPU version of Radeon HD 3870 graphics card


^ AMD OpenGL 3.0 driver release on Jan 28, 2009

^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wasson, Scott. AMD Radeon HD 2900 XT graphics processor: R600 revealed, Tech Report, May 14, 2007

^ a b c d e f Beyond3D review: AMD R600 Architecture and GPU Analysis, retrieved June 2, 2007.

^ a b ExtremeTech review

^ Witheiler, Matthew. ATi TRUFORM Technology - Powering the next generation Radeon, AnandTech, May 29, 2001.

^ a b The Future of DirectX presentation, slide 24-29

^ nVidia GeForce3 SDK WhitePaper

^ DailyTech report, retrieved December 7, 2007

^ Wilson, Derek. ATI Radeon HD 2900 XT: Calling a Spade a Spade: Multi-GPU Performance - Prey, AnandTech, May 14, 2007.

^ "RV670 Cards & Specs Revealed". VR-Zone. August 22, 2007. http://www.vr-zone.com/articles/HD_2950Pro_(RV670)_Cards_&_Specs_Revealed/5181.html. 

^ (Spanish) MadboxPC coverage, retrieved November 10, 2007

^ ATI DirectX 10.1 whitepaper, retrieved December 7, 2007

^ HD2400 & HD2600 Press release

^ Beyond3D R600 review, retrieved September 25, 2007

^ Kowaliski, Cyril (2007-09-25). "AMD launches the $ 249 Radeon HD 2900 Pro". The Tech Report. http://www.techreport.com/discussions.x/13267. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 

^ a b AMD official press release

^ Beyond3D RV630 chip reference, retrieved September 25, 2007

^ Sapphire HD2K Product Matrix

^ Beyond3D report, retrieved September 13, 2007

^ Beyond3D RV610 chip reference, retrieved September 25, 2007

^ Fudzilla report, retrieved October 31, 2007

^ a b (Spanish) MadboxPC thread, retrieved November 10, 2007


^ Hexus.net review, retrieved January 30, 2007

^ Fudzilla review, retrieved December 7, 2007

^ PEX8547 product brief, retrieved January 22, 2008

^ Hexus.net image, retrieved January 30, 2008

^ Fudzilla report, retrieved November 27, 2007

^ AMD official low-profile design with DisplayPort, retrieved January 23, 2008

^ (Japanese)PC Watch report, retrieved January 23, 2008

^ Mobility Radeon HD 2400 specifications and Mobility Radeon HD 2400 XT specifications

^ HD 2600 specifications and HD 2600 XT specifications

^ ATI Vendor ID page

^ Hexus.net report: Welcome to the world's fastest laptop, brought to you by Intel and ATI, retrieved April 8, 2008

^ DailyTech report

^ The Inquirer report

^ Fudzilla review, retrieved February 15, 2008

^ Legit Reviews review, retrieved February 15, 2008

^ Catalyst 8.3 release notes, retrieved March 5, 2008

^ Catalyst 8.4 release notes, retrieved April 17, 2008

^ AGP issue on AMD support page

^ guru3D discussion thread

^ Linux Catalyst 8.5 release notes

^ AMD Developer Central - Developer Guides and Manuals, retrieved September 30, 2008

^ Phoronix report

^ Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. R600-Family Instruction Set Architecture, X.org website, June 11, 2008.

^ Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Radeon R6xx/R7xx 3D Register Reference Guide, X.org website, January 26, 2009.

^ "RV670 is Radeon HD 3800 Series". VR-Zone. October 17, 2007. http://www.vr-zone.com/articles/RV670_is_Radeon_HD_3800_Series/5358.html#Scene_1. 

^ EliteBastards' HD2000 preview, retrieved July 23, 2007.

^ TechReport UVD article

^ AMD press release, the third paragraph.

AMD also wishes to clarify any confusion that may exist regarding the presence of the Unified Video Decoder (UVD) in its ATI Radeon HD 2000 series graphics processors. UVD is present in the ATI Mobility Radeon HD 2300, the ATI Radeon HD 2400, and the ATI Radeon HD 2600 series products, but is not present in the ATI Radeon HD 2900 series products as it is not needed due to the usage model of this high end product.


AMD Press release

^ Huynh, Anh T. & Kubicki, Kristopher. Whoops, ATI Radeon HD 2900 XT Lacks UVD, DailyTech, May 25, 2007.

^ Falcon Northwest President Blog on 1 GB GDDR4 2900 XT

External links

ATI Radeon HD 2000 Series

ATI Radeon HD 3000 Series

ATI Mobility Radeon HD 2000 Series

ATI Mobility Radeon HD 3000 Series

v d e

AMD graphics products (ATI Technologies)


ATI consumer graphics processors

2D rendering

Direct3D 3-6

Direct3D 7

Direct3D 8

Direct3D 9

Direct3D 10

Direct3D 11



Radeon R100

Radeon R200

Radeon R300  R420  R520

Radeon R600  R700

Evergreen  Northern Islands1



ATI chipsets

AMD chipsets

IGP 300 series / RX380  Radeon Xpress 200  CrossFire Xpress 3200  Radeon Xpress 1250

480X / 570X / 580X  690 Series  7-Series  8-Series


Other ATI products and technologies


ATI Multi Rendering  CrossFire X

GPU technologies

TruForm  HyperMemory  HyperZ  PowerPlay  AVIVO  ATI Hybrid Graphics  XGP

Workstations and HPC

FireGL  FireMV  FirePro 3D  FireStream (Close to Metal)

Drivers and software

Catalyst  fglrx (Linux)  Hydravision  HLSL2GLSL

Multimedia and handheld

All-in-Wonder  Imageon2  Xilleon2

Video game console GPU

Flipper (GameCube)  Xenos (Xbox 360)  Hollywood (Wii)

1 Upcoming product.

2 Discontinued product.

Categories: ATI Technologies productsHidden categories: Articles to be expanded from May 2009 | All articles to be expanded | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from July 2007 | Articles with unsourced statements from March 2008 | Articles to be expanded from June 2008

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At the moment I am a bit ill at Time Warner. I do not know what is causing it, but I have been having really poor reception on a large number of channels lately. It is as though there is a lot of wind and it is blowing the satellite out of place. This is a time warner cable service area. However the problem is only for the TV's which are hooked up to the two digital cable boxes. If it is straight through from the cable it works fine, however without that box there is no HD. I am looking at stuff like this site and thinking about the logic of dumping those jerks once and for all over this. The thing that really annoys me is that this crap only seems to effect the small number of channels that I actually want to watch. If there is a football game or a basketball game on, then for sure it is going to be a problem for me to watch that channel.In fact some of the channels are like they are scrambled. it is like when I Start Reading Way More Start Reading Way More

The Reason I Chose This Car Rental Company

I am the type of person who will go to several different stores to get the best deals on whatever I am buying. Even when I cannot go to different places, I don't just accept the closest thing to me. Instead, I turn to the Internet, which is what I did when I had to rent a car on a business trip I had to go on. I researched several different car rental agencies, and I found that the best one to go through was www.carhireaberdeenairport.com. There are a number of reasons why this one rated as the best one in my opinion. The first one is convenience and location. I was flying into Aberdeen, and renting a car from this company meant that I could get it right there at the airport. I know a lot of people will do this anyway mainly for the sake of convenience, but I was prepared to rent a taxi to a car rental agency away from the airport if I found that one of them was better than the airport rental agency. Another reason Start Reading Way More

Get Helpful Tips About Reputation Management That Are Simple To Understand

One of the primary ways you can manage your reputation is to claim your business brand online and take charge of the content about you. Use either KnowEm.com, UserNameCheck.com or NameChk.com to locate every online instance of your business name popping up. You only need to use one, but any of them can let you know if anyone out there is misrepresenting your business or speaking ill of you.If your industry has a trade organization, become a member of it. People who are seeking new businesses to work with often check with trade organizations to find them. Being a member in these groups boosts credibility. Even though there usually is a fee to join, the benefits you get back make it all worth it. Work towards transparency. This means being upfront with customers when you make mistakes, and make sure you handle it carefully. Try your best not to hide anything while running your business.What do you feel you know well Start Reading Way More

What I feel really – You Don’t Need Any Other Article, This One Has The Best Acid Reflux Advice

Drink between meals, not during them. You can help keep your hunger at bay, for one thing. In addition, not drinking during meals will prevent your stomach from expanding as much. As a result, acid is not as likely to rise up, so your acid reflux symptoms will decrease. Smoking is a leading culprit of acid reflux. Tobacco products can slow down digestion, which means there will be more acid inside your stomach. Smoking also discourages your mouth from producing saliva. All of this combined can cause acid reflux. Smoking also damages your digestive system.Lose weight if you are overweight. Losing your extra pounds will help reduce your acid reflux symptoms. There will be added pressure on the stomach and you could get bad heartburn. By losing that extra weight, you can enjoy a higher quality of life.Lose weight to help with your acid reflux condition. That weight could be responsible for your acid reflux. Your weight Start Reading Way More

All that I uncover – Top Tips To Improve Your Football Game

Talk to your coach about your progress. While your coach is more than likely giving you a lot of direction already, talk to him after practice. He might be calmer then, and he may be able to offer you tips about how you can improve. You can ask him about how far you've progressed, as well. Live confidently. Any sport requires confidence to master. If you approach life with confidence, then you'll really inspire those around you, including your teammates. Also, you will succeed in rattling the opponent. This can psychologically boost your game.Get on the coach's good side. Don't be the one who is always late then wonder what is wrong. Always show up on time to all practices and workouts, ask to lead some activities, and most importantly, do things to show your coach you are willing to make an effort. The coach will notice how responsible you are. Learning to run through a defender is essential to scoring points. Sprint Start Reading Way More

Get Out From Behind The Acne Mask With The Help Of These Tips

Acne blemishes can be quite a source of stress to the individual who suffers from them. While the causes of acne can be many, solutions to one's acne are many as well. By reading and learning from the tips that are contained in this article one can reduce or eliminate their acne. Severe problems with acne can improve when you commit to a daily cleaning regimen. Wash your face with a cleaner that is not oil or alcohol based because these tend to dry your skin. Start a cleaning regiment, and stick to it. You will see a difference with your acne in no time. Items that irritate your skin are a contributing factor to acne. When your hands are dirty, don't touch your face. Change your pillowcases often to keep oil and dirt away from your face. A great tip for reducing or preventing acne is to make sure that your diet contains healthy amounts of fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. There are a vast number of vegetables and Start Reading Way More

My personal View – Advice To Help You Find Your Own Fashionable Style

If you are dealing with a problem with frizzy hair, never rub it with a towel after washing it. This will break hair and cause more episodes of frizzing. A great alternative here is to actually wrap your hair up inside of the towel, like a beehive. Then you can press the towel gently to absorb the moisture. When drier, comb your hair to the style that you desire.An important part of fashion is being daring enough to wear something you might not normally wear. You might find that you like it and with it, your fashion options will expand. This is a great way to add some variety to your style.An imbalance of hormones can cause your skin to become oily and your hair to look the same. Stress can cause this situation. If you are stressed, relaxation therapy can help restore hormonal balance, which will probably normalize the quantity of oil produced by your skin and scalp. Problems with hormones may cause both males and Start Reading Way More

Understand this – Helpful Tips About Soccer That Simple To Follow

Communication is essential between teammates. Communication is the arsenal to use when on the field. If you seen an opening, make sure that the player with the ball knows it too. You need to learn the right lingo when you are playing a game of soccer, so that you can communicate your intentions properly. As an example, if you tell your teammates that you are going "through", this means that you intend receiving a pass by going between two of the defenders.Talk with your teammates during a game. Nothing is worse than miscommunicating a play to your team that results in the other team getting the ball. If you are concerned that the other team may find out what play you will be using, set up code names for your different plays.Teaching is a great way to learn. Teach the younger players on other teams, or focus on helping the younger or more inexperienced players on your own team. This helps validate your skills and can Start Reading Way More

Seven Systems – Several Keys To Getting The Most From Your Web Hosting

There are many web hosting companies to choose from, but not all will be suitable for your site. Take the time to compare hosts, and put these suggestions to use as you assess your needs, make comparisons, and ultimately select the right web host with the service and features you need.Go into your web host search with a price range in mind. You need to know exactly how much you are willing to invest into your site and hosting it before you start looking. This will help you to narrow down your choices. You can also look into special plans within hosting sites where you can pick and choose how much storage and other options you want. Resist the temptation to accept free domain registration from the same company you will be using for web hosting. There are many start-ups out there who may - or may not - be around for very long, and they probably will not give clients advance notice if they are going out of business. Start Reading Way More

Users might want to become familiar with – Are You Tired Of Hemorrhoids? Read On

You can lessen the chance that you will develop external hemorrhoids by paying some extra attention to your hygiene routines for that area of your body. Use toilet papers that are softer than before and that don't leave debris after the fact. Keeping a box of moist wipes around is also a good idea, as is using them after all bowel movements.The average external hemorrhoid can easily be taken care of with items that you can purchase over the counter. You can prevent them by drinking more water and eating enough fiber. Also make use of stool softeners when needed. The following article will provide you with more tips about coping with this. If you know precisely what hemorrhoids are, you can alleviate some of your worries. You should be sure to educate yourself on this topic if you or someone you love has this problem. Nerves lining the rectum can become aggravated, causing pain due to swelling and sensitivity. Having Start Reading Way More

The Best Strategies For Mastering The Field Of Debt Consolidation

Communicate with your creditors as much as possible. Let them know you fully intend on paying your debt back and ask if you can negotiate. Creditors know they have more chances of collecting on your debt if they stop charging you for late fees or interests and establish small monthly payments.Consider getting a new credit card to consolidate your debt. It can be quite annoying to continue to get the 0% interest credit card offers in the mail, but the next time you get one, look at it. You may find that you are able to put all, or most of your debt on this card while paying no interest. Consider your financial long-term goals before you consolidate your debt. If you are not in any immediate rush to pay all of the debt, you might not need the help of debt consolidation. If you have eliminate debt for something important, it's probably best to consolidate your debt. Almost all debt consolidation is non-profit. The IRS Start Reading Way More

Do You Want To Work From Home? Try Affiliate Marketing.

Trying to be a "super" affiliate may be a mistake for many affiliate program members. Do not do too much, you will wear yourself out. You have to keep in mind that maximum results are not an option. Give yourself plenty of time so you can develop a plan that works. It is not a secret that you must spend some money to make some money. The same goes when starting to venture into affiliate marketing. Reinvest in affiliate marketing by advertising wherever opportunity to advertise is available. Yahoo!, Google, and Facebook are excellent resources and can be used to produce impressive results. A lot of successful affiliate marketers hold question-and-answer sessions with themselves in order to get ahead in the highly competitive marketplace. You should examine your market and then ask questions on how it could be improved. Of course, then you must work to provide the answers and to improve the market.Gaining your reader's Start Reading Way More

Almost nothing fantastic – Great Advice On Having Beautfiul Landscaping At Your Home

Many people plant flowers and shrubs along their property lines and homes. Although this is a good thing, it's also wise to have shrubs and plants everywhere on the property. Doing this will improve the depth appearance of your home. Your house will appear to be set back further than it really is. There is nothing wrong with developing your landscape in gradual stages. Instead of trying to do your entire your at once, try dividing it into sections and doing one part at a time. This will make your project more affordable. You can choose to start with a certain section or begin with a specific plant.If privacy is your priority when planting trees, then look for fast-growing species. A fast-growing tree does just that. One of the more popular fast-growing trees out there is the weeping cherry variety of tree. Before you start your project, it's worth the money to get a little professional advice. Although landscape architects Start Reading Way More

Want To Ensure A Healthy Pregnancy? Check Out These Tips!

Unusual amounts of vaginal discharge during your pregnancy should be reported to your doctor. It may be a vaginal infection which can be common in pregnancy, or it may indicate a more serious problem that needs to be addressed. Make sure you pay special attention to your teeth when you are pregnant. As pregnancy hormones increase, this may cause your gums to swell or bleed when you brush and floss. It is important that you brush your teeth gently with a very soft toothbrush. To take care of the health of mom and baby alike, it's important to get good care throughout the pregnancy and afterwards. Pregnancy has such lasting implications for both the mother's life and health that she needs to get a doctor in the loop right away. Take care of your best interests and seek appropriate care during your pregnancy.You may notice yourself snoring now that you are pregnant. This is not unusual, even if you never snored before. Start Reading Way More

Geez ! ? ! ! – Get Educated About Acupuncture With These Simple To Follow Tips

Quietly lay down for acupuncture. You should not read or do other things that can cause distractions. You can opt to listen to soft music, but you may not want to if you think it'll keep you from relaxing. Sessions can be ideal for napping.Dental, menstrual, migraine, labor, back, arthritis--acupuncture is a technique that has been shown to relieve the pain regardless of its source. However, there are also risks and considerations associated with acupuncture therapy. Check out this article to learn how to relieve your pain with acupuncture in a safe and effective manner. When you visit your traditional doctor, the clinic is usually cold and sterile. There is nothing living there except for the patients and staff. Acupuncturist's offices are usually more vibrant and active. How can they provide you help? This article will explain how it works. You may love to have a glass of wine with dinner, but it's best to stay Start Reading Way More

Wow ! ? ! – Super Secrets For Repairing Home Security Issues

Lots of people realize the importance of home security, but not everyone possesses lots of knowledge of it. The best way to know how to truly protect your home and its contents is to study the subject as comprehensively as you can. Keep reading for great tips on home safety. Make sure you trust your house cleaner before you provide them with a key. Before you give a cleaner full access to your home for extended periods of time, you have to be certain that they're trustworthy and reliable. Make sure you check references. If you hire a cleaner who works for a company, speak with your local BBB about the company's reliability. If your house has a garage, keep the car there, not just your junk. Keeping your car inside will deter thieves from stealing or vandalizing it. Keeping your car out of sight is also good for thwarting burglars' attempts to determine when you are likely to be away from home.If you have kids or roommates Start Reading Way More

The Key Things To Consider When Looking Into Debt Consolidation

Almost all debt consolidation is non-profit. The IRS gives tax breaks to companies who offer services to clients who are consolidating debt. Non-profit does not mean free. These companies do charge fees for their services. They have to pay their employees, file paperwork and have other costs associated with running their business.Find out how the debt consolidation company is funded, and do not do business with them if they refuse to disclose this information. If they say they are a non-profit organization, make sure to check with the state to see if that is true. Also, if they say they are tax-exempt, check that out too.Choosing a consolidation loan means considering the rate. Not only do you need to know how high it is, but also whether it is fixed or variable. You never know what the future might bring as far as interest rates go, so a long-term variable loan can truly cripple you financially.This method of paying Start Reading Way More

Top Nine Ideas – What You Need To Do To Get Your Dream Wedding

If you're planning on having a buffet at your wedding reception, work out a plan to get the food moving quickly so that no guest is left waiting. Consider having multiple tables at different locations in your venue so that many tables can go up at one time, shortening the lines at each. Furthermore, weddings can be frantic and hectic. Planning a wedding is important as the bride and groom must decide all of the important details of the wedding down to the last. But, using the advice from this article, any wedding should be less hectic and frantic. This will make the planning stage easier for the bride and groom, therefore be a wonderful stepping stone to planning events together as a married couple. Consider the weather at the time of year you are planning your wedding. If the conditions of the weather are unfavorable then your guests might not want to celebrate during this time, like if the weather is raining or Start Reading Way More

Certainly good – Look Here For Great Advice About Reputation Management

Look for the potential good in any online conflict. It is far easier to learn from your own experiences than to simply listen and read about resolving online conflicts. After a conflict is over, seek out the learning opportunities it presented. If the conflict caught the attention of people you would like to know, use it as a springboard to improve your own online social and business circles. Counteract any negative online content on your company by contacting its creator. If there is ever any negative content when you do a search of your company, try contacting the reviewer, blogger or whoever posted it as soon as possible. Ask them if there's anything you can do change their negative sentiment to a positive one. If they are unwilling to do so, write a comment(if possible) with your side of the story.Create a mailing list. Make signing up for your mailing list fast and simple. To help bolster you mailing list offer Start Reading Way More

Two Directions – Ways To Make Buying And Selling Commercial Properties Easier

Try to find the proper financing first. Loan products and commercial lenders are different than that of home loans. They are better in a number of ways. Commercial loans will require a bigger down payment, but if the deal doesn't go as planned, you'll be able to avoid personal liability. Also, banks are often more relaxed and will allow you to borrow the down payment from a partner or a friend.There are a lot of ways to save money on repair costs when it comes to property cleanup. First off, you may not be liable for cleanup expenses if you do not hold ownership interest, but if you do, you are on the hook. It can cost your a lot of money to clean up and get rid of garbage. Get a report from an environmental assessment company. There will be fees involved; however, the savings overall will justify the expense. Commercial loans, as compared to residential ones, require larger down payments. You need to research different Start Reading Way More

Two to three Tips – Tips For Successfully Getting Rid Of Pesky Pests

Check every foot of your home for pests, as no area is immune. If part of your house's support structure is underground, then your house may be subject to subterranean termites who can eat the area of house that you do not see very often. Have someone inspect any basements or crawl spaces in your home.Diatomaceous earth is a great way to reduce the amount of roaches in your house. Just put some of this product anywhere roaches lurk, even hard-to-reach places like in cabinets and behind appliances. Diatomaceous earth does not harm human beings. These can kill insects, because it eats through the exoskeleton. The number of roaches may increase after using this method, but after two weeks, they should all be gone. Diatomaceous earth is an excellent option if you are struggling with roaches. You can safely sprinkle this in the roach-infested areas and hidden areas, such as on top of cabinets and behind your appliances. Start Reading Way More

Use This Advice To Cope With Snoring

Stay away from all milk products before going to bed. Most dairy products cause mucus buildup in your throat, which in turn, causes snoring. If you are a big dairy fan, do not consume it past dinnertime. Also, if you want to have a drink before bedtime, stick to water or tea.When snoring has become routine for you, then take a look at the things you are eating prior to sleeping. Things like alcohol, sleeping pills and antihistamines can cause the muscles in the throat to become lax. This may cause collapsing inward, which can obstruct your air passages and cause snoring. If you have to drink something before bedtime, make it water. Your medications may be to blame for your snoring. Some medications dry nasal membranes which makes them swell and impede the flow of air. Some medicines have the opposite effect, loosening your throat muscles and causing them to collapse inward. Buy a new pillow to help with your snoring. Start Reading Way More

Sick Of Dealing With Eczema? Try Using These Tips!

Make your moisturizer your best friend. Every time you wash your hands or take a bath, apply the moisturizer. Do not get fancy. Anything that has a scent attached to it could exacerbate your condition. Also, look for a very thick product to get the best results for your skin. Avoid becoming overheated. Excess sweat can trigger eczema flare-ups. If you do work out, take a shower afterwards. In fact, shower after any bout of strenuous activity, which could include things like gardening or heavy housework. Keeping your skin clean will help to keep you comfortable and your eczema flare-ups at bay.Do not scratch your eczema. It is hard to resist because eczema is an itchy skin condition, but scratching makes it worse. You can increase the itching, damage your skin, and increase your risk of getting an infection. Try keeping the skin moisturized, bathing regularly, and using cold compresses to alleviate itching.Make sure Start Reading Way More

Top Tips And Techniques To Download Music Safely

If you purchase your music through iTunes, pay the extra cash for iTunes Match ($25 per year). This music service gives you access to your entire library on the web - not just the songs you've recently purchased. iTunes Match looks at all of your songs and matches them with a cloud version. It's an excellent way to increase your cloud-based music library. Amazon and iTunes are popular markets for finding downloaded music. You can set up a free account and browse songs from millions of artists. In many cases, you can even listen to a small sample of a song before you buy it. This is a great way to access a lot of music all in one place. If you use iTunes, make sure to sign up for their email alerts. They often send out specials and discounted albums that are available at a lower price for a very limited period of time. If you do not sign up for the email alerts, you might miss out on these savings. You should always Start Reading Way More
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